Soil Investigation Services: Unveiling the Foundation of Successful Projects

When it comes to construction projects, the foundation is the backbone that ensures the stability and longevity of any structure. Before laying the groundwork for a successful project, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the soil and its properties. This is where soil investigation services come into play. AKM Geotechnical, a leading provider of geotechnical engineering services, offers top-notch soil investigation services that employ various methods to analyze soil conditions. In this blog post, we will delve into the importance of soil investigation, the different methods used, the steps involved in the process, the interpretation of soil investigation reports, the equipment and tools utilized, and the significance of geotechnical soil investigation for construction projects.

Types of Soil Investigation Methods


Soil investigation services encompass a range of methods to gather vital data about the soil’s composition, strength, and load-bearing capacity. AKM Geotechnical employs the following methods for soil investigation:

Borehole Method:

This is a widely used technique where boreholes are drilled into the ground, and soil samples are extracted at different depths. These samples undergo laboratory testing to determine their engineering properties.

Standard Penetration Test (SPT):

SPT is a popular in-situ testing method to evaluate the soil’s resistance to penetration. A drill rig drives a split-barrel sampler into the ground, and the number of blows required to achieve a certain depth is recorded.

Cone Penetration Test (CPT):

CPT involves pushing a cone-shaped penetrometer into the soil while recording data on resistance and pore pressure. This method provides continuous information about soil properties without the need for sample retrieval.

Plate Load Test:

Plate load tests are conducted to determine the bearing capacity of soil at a specific depth. A steel plate is placed on the ground surface, and load is applied incrementally while measuring settlement.

Importance of Soil Investigation


Soil investigation is a critical step in any construction project for several reasons:

Foundation Design:

A thorough understanding of the soil’s properties allows engineers to design suitable foundations that can safely support the structure and prevent settlement issues.

Safety and Stability:

Accurate soil investigation ensures that the construction site is free from potential hazards, such as landslides or subsidence, reducing the risk of accidents and ensuring long-term stability.


By tailoring the construction design to suit the soil conditions, unnecessary expenses on over-engineered foundations can be avoided.


In many regions, soil investigation is a mandatory requirement for obtaining construction permits, ensuring compliance with regulations and building codes.

Steps for Conducting Soil Investigation

Soil investigation involves a systematic approach to gather and analyze data. The process typically includes the following steps:

Desk Study:

The initial step involves gathering existing geological data, maps, and reports of the site. This helps in planning the subsequent investigation phases.

Site Visit and Preliminary Inspection: 

A site visit is conducted to assess the site’s accessibility, topography, and potential hazards. This preliminary inspection guides the selection of appropriate investigation methods.

Borehole Drilling: 

Boreholes are drilled at various locations on the site to extract soil samples. The depth and location of these boreholes are determined based on site-specific factors.

Sample Collection: 

Soil samples are collected from the boreholes at different depths and labeled for laboratory testing.

Laboratory Testing

The collected soil samples undergo a battery of tests, including grain size analysis, compaction, shear strength, and permeability tests, to determine their engineering properties.

Data Analysis and Interpretation: 

The results of laboratory tests are analyzed and interpreted to understand the soil’s behavior and suitability for construction.


A comprehensive soil investigation report is prepared, including all the data, test results, analysis, and recommendations for foundation design.

Soil Investigation Report Interpretation


The soil investigation report is a crucial document that provides valuable insights into the soil conditions at the construction site. Geotechnical engineers interpret the report to make informed decisions regarding foundation design and construction. The report typically includes the following sections:

Site Description: 

This section provides an overview of the site, including its location, topography, and accessibility.

Geological Conditions: 

The report describes the geological strata encountered during borehole drilling and their characteristics.

Soil Properties: 

This section presents the results of laboratory tests, including grain size distribution, shear strength, and consolidation properties.

Foundation Recommendations: 

Based on the soil properties and bearing capacity, the report provides recommendations for the type and depth of the foundation required.

Risk Assessment: 

The report may include an assessment of potential risks, such as slope stability, liquefaction, or expansive soils.

Cost of Soil Investigation

The cost of soil investigation can vary depending on the project’s size, complexity, and the depth of investigation required. Factors that influence the cost include:

Number of Boreholes:

More boreholes may be needed for larger projects or sites with varying soil conditions.

Depth of Boreholes: 

Deeper drilling increases costs due to additional time and equipment required.

Laboratory Testing: 

The number and complexity of laboratory tests performed on soil samples contribute to the overall cost.


The location and accessibility of the site can impact transportation and drilling costs.

It is important to consider the cost of soil investigation as an investment in the safety and success of the construction project.

Soil Investigation Equipment and Tools


To conduct a successful soil investigation, AKM Geotechnical utilizes state-of-the-art equipment and tools, including:

  • Drilling Rigs: 

Different types of drilling rigs, such as rotary and percussion rigs, are used to bore holes into the ground.

  • Soil Sampling Tools: 

Various tools, such as split-spoon samplers and thin-walled tubes, are used to collect undisturbed soil samples.

  • Cone Penetrometer: 

The cone penetrometer is used for the Cone Penetration Test (CPT), providing real-time data on soil resistance.

  • Plate Load Test Setup: 

For plate load tests, AKM Geotechnical employs specialized equipment to apply loads and measure settlements.

Geotechnical Soil Investigation


Geotechnical soil investigation is a specialized branch of soil investigation services that focuses on assessing the engineering properties of the soil. This investigation plays a pivotal role in the design and construction of various structures, including buildings, bridges, roads, and dams. Geotechnical soil investigation involves:

Soil Characterization: 


Evaluating soil properties such as cohesion, friction, and consolidation characteristics.

Bearing Capacity Analysis: 

Determining the load-bearing capacity of the soil to design suitable foundations.

Settlement Analysis:

Assessing the potential settlement of the soil under the imposed loads.

Slope Stability: 

Analyzing the stability of slopes for cut and fill operations during construction.

Soil Investigation for Construction Projects

Soil investigation is essential for all construction projects, regardless of size or scale. It is especially critical for:

  • Buildings and Infrastructure: 

Ensuring the stability and safety of buildings, bridges, roads, and other infrastructure projects.

  • Dams and Embankments: 

Evaluating the strength and stability of soil for constructing dams and embankments.

  • Oil and Gas Projects: 

Analyzing soil conditions for the safe installation of pipelines and storage tanks.

  • Renewable Energy Projects: 

Assessing the suitability of soil for the installation of wind turbines and solar panels.

Soil Investigation Consultants

Soil investigation requires specialized expertise and experience. AKM Geotechnical offers expert soil investigation consultants who provide valuable insights and recommendations based on their thorough understanding of soil behavior. These consultants work closely with project teams to ensure the best outcomes and mitigate potential risks.

Soil Testing and Investigation Services

AKM Geotechnical provides comprehensive soil testing and investigation services tailored to the specific needs of each project. Their team of geotechnical experts utilizes advanced technology and equipment to deliver accurate and reliable results. With a commitment to quality and safety, AKM Geotechnical’s soil investigation services are the foundation for successful and sustainable construction projects.


Soil investigation services form the backbone of any successful construction project. With the help of AKM Geotechnical’s advanced soil investigation methods, accurate data is gathered to understand soil properties and behavior. From foundation design and safety considerations to project cost-effectiveness, soil investigation plays a crucial role in shaping the success and longevity of infrastructure projects. 

AKM Geotechnical’s expertise in soil investigation and their commitment to providing reliable results make them a trusted partner in the construction industry, ensuring safe and resilient structures for a better tomorrow.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the types of soil investigation?

Types of soil investigation include geotechnical soil investigation, environmental soil investigation, and agricultural soil investigation.

What are 2 methods for soil investigations?

Two methods for soil investigations are borehole drilling and cone penetration testing (CPT).

What is the purpose of soil investigation? 

The purpose of soil investigation is to assess soil properties and behavior to design safe and stable foundations for construction projects and to address environmental or agricultural concerns.

What are the phases of a soil investigation?

Phases of a soil investigation include desk study, site visit and preliminary inspection, borehole drilling and soil sample collection, laboratory testing, data analysis and interpretation, and reporting of findings and recommendations.


179 Pak Block

Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan